Are there different strains of Legionella?
While there are more than 58 different recognised Legionella species, less than half of those can cause illness in humans. However, while around 25 species are known to be harmful to us, just one has been identified as the cause of most outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease.
How many species of Legionella are there?
Currently, the Legionella genus includes 52 species and more than 70 different serogroups, and more than 20 species have been proven to be causative agents of Legionnaires’ disease (LD). The species Legionella pneumophila accounts for approximately 90% of confirmed cases of legionellosis, and L.
How many subtypes of Legionella pneumophila are there?
Three subtypes of L pneumophila serogroup 1 were defined by plasmid content and monoclonal antibody binding patterns; two were unique to the environmental and patient isolates from UH and one was unique to RH.
Is legionellosis the same as Legionnaires disease?
Legionella bacteria can cause a serious type of pneumonia (lung infection) called Legionnaires’ disease. Legionella bacteria can also cause a less serious illness called Pontiac fever.
Is Legionella pneumophila pathogenic or nonpathogenic?
Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the most virulent strain causing most infections. The remaining non-pneumophila species (found in water and soil) are considered non-pathogenic until shown to cause disease.
What is Lochgoilhead Fever?
An outbreak caused by Legionella micdadei in early 1988 in the UK became known as Lochgoilhead fever. Since that time, other species of Legionella that cause Pontiac fever have been identified, most notably in New Zealand, in 2007 where Legionella longbeachae was discovered.
What chlorine kills Legionella?
A number of different Legionella strains, both environmental and clinical, were tested. The results indicate that legionellae are much more resistant to chlorine than are coliform bacteria. At 21 degrees C, pH 7.6, and 0.1 mg of free chlorine residual per liter, a 99% kill of L.
What is Legionella non pneumophila?
L. longbeachae is a unique Legionella species that dwells in soil and is particularly prevalent within specific geographical locations. Nonpneumophila species of Legionella can cause a wide range of infections not typically categorized as legionellosis and mixed infections of Legionella species can also occur.
Is Legionellosis contagious?
Legionnaires’ disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from water that contains the bacteria. The mist may come from hot tubs, showers, or air-conditioning units for large buildings. The bacteria don’t spread from person to person.
Why is it called Pontiac fever?
Pontiac fever was named for Pontiac, Michigan, where the first case was recognized. In 1968, several workers at the county’s department of health came down with a fever and mild flu symptoms, but not pneumonia.
What are the different types of Legionella pneumophila?
Of these approximately 25 are linked to disease, namely Legionella pneumophila species serogroup 1, 3, 4, and 6. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the most virulent strain causing most infections.
What bacteria causes Legionnaires’ disease?
Bacteria of the genus Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever, collectively referred to as legionellosis. There are at least 60 different species of Legionella; most are considered pathogenic, but most disease is caused by Legionella pneumophila, particularly serogroup 1.
What is Legionella serogroup 1?
Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the most virulent strain causing most infections. The remaining non-pneumophila species (found in water and soil) are considered non-pathogenic until shown to cause disease. Of the CDC reported cases less than 5% is attributed to non-pathogenic species.
What is Legionella Bacillus?
Legionella are gram-negative, aerobic, unencapsulated bacilli that are nutritionally fastidious requiring special media for growth. The family Legionellaceae comprises more than 49 species with more than 64 serogroups.