What are functionally-related genes?
Through the concept of “guilt-by-association,” genes which show similar gene expression patterns across conditions are hypothesized to be functionally-related [2–5]. For example, in S. cerevisiae, there is significant overlap between the proteins which physically interact and the proteins which are co-expressed .
What is the structure of prokaryotic gene?
The DNA of prokaryotes is organized into a circular chromosome supercoiled in the nucleoid region of the cell cytoplasm. Proteins that are needed for a specific function are encoded together in blocks called operons.
What is the name for a cluster of functionally similar genes in prokaryotes?
Part of the answer to this question lies in clusters of coregulated genes called operons. Bacteria respond to such variations in their environment by altering their gene expression pattern; thus, they express different enzymes depending on the carbon sources and other nutrients available to them.
How would you define a gene structurally and functionally?
“A gene is a functional- hereditary unit made up of nucleotides which forms proteins.” Genes are located on chromosomes.” Or we can say, “A gene is an inheritance unit of a cell”- is a globally and universally accepted definition of a gene.
What is an operon in prokaryotes?
An operon is a cluster of genes that are transcribed together to give a single messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, which therefore encodes multiple proteins (Fig. 16.11). Such polycistronic mRNA is typically found in prokaryotes.
What is cluster of genes with related functions called describe its structure?
answered Aug 10, 2020 by Karan01 (51.3k points) Correct Answer is: (b) Operon.
How is fine structure of a gene organized?
Gene structure is the organisation of specialised sequence elements within a gene. Each of these steps is controlled by specific sequence elements, or regions, within the gene. Every gene, therefore, requires multiple sequence elements to be functional.
How are prokaryotic genes related?
In prokaryotes, structural genes of related function are often organized together on the genome and transcribed together under the control of a single promoter. The operon’s regulatory region includes both the promoter and the operator. There are some gene clusters in eukaryotes that function similar to operons.
How do operons regulate gene expression in prokaryotes?
Prokaryotic operons are commonly controlled by the binding of repressors to operator regions, thereby preventing the transcription of the structural genes. Such operons are classified as either repressible operons or inducible operons.
Why are genes related to common functions found together in operons?
Why are genes related to common functions found together in operons? Having genes with related functions together in operons provides for coordinated responses. In positive control of gene expression, the regulatory molecule stimulates transcription.
How does gene expression differ in eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
Prokaryotic gene expression (both transcription and translation) occurs within the cytoplasm of a cell due to the lack of a defined nucleus; thus, the DNA is freely located within the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic gene expression occurs in both the nucleus (transcription) and cytoplasm (translation).
What is the functional product of a structural gene during transcription?
In transcription, a portion of the double-stranded DNA template gives rise to a single-stranded RNA molecule. In some cases, the RNA molecule itself is a “finished product” that serves some important function within the cell.
What is the fine structure of gene?
In other words, each gene consists of several units of function, mutation and recombination. The fine structure of gene deals with mapping of individual gene locus. This is parallel to the mapping of chromosomes.
What are the features of prokaryotic gene structure?
PROKARYOTIC Gene structure Genes based on their activity: 1.House keeping genes 2.Specific genes. STRUCTURAL FEATURES: Simple gene structure. Small genomes (0.5 to 10 million bp). Prokaryotic genes are collinear with their proteins.
What is the functional unit of heredity?
•The gene is the Functional unit of Heredity. •Each gene is a segment of DNA that give rise to a protein product or RNA. •A gene may exist in alternative forms called alleles. •Chromosome in fact carry genes.
Are prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes the same thing?
Although these two views generally coincide in the case of prokaryotic genes, the situation is much more complex in the case of a eukaryotic gene.