What is MDR-TB treatment?
Treatment of MDR-TB requires treatment with second-line drugs, usually four or more anti-TB drugs for a minimum of 6 months, and possibly extending for 18–24 months if rifampin resistance has been identified in the specific strain of TB with which the patient has been infected.
Is MDR-TB curable?
The cure rate in persons with MDR-TB is 50-60%, compared with 95-97% for persons with drug-susceptible TB. The estimated cure rate for XDR-TB is 30-50%. In people who are also infected with HIV, MDR-TB and XDR-TB often produce fulminant and fatal disease; time from TB exposure to death averages 2-7 months.
What is the full form of XDR-TB?
Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB) is a rare type of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, plus any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (i.e., amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin).
How long is MDR-TB treatment?
MDR- and XDR-TB need prolonged treatment duration, from 18 to 24 months after sputum culture conversion, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) . A prolonged duration of treatment may lead to poor adherence, higher cost and undue toxicity.
What causes MDR-TB?
MDR TB is caused by the development of TB bacteria, which have become resistant to ordinary TB drugs. This occurs due to various reasons, including: As a result of inadequate or irregular management of “ordinary” TB – either by using inappropriate drug combinations or by using single drugs for “ordinary” TB.
How is MDR-TB diagnosed?
Drug resistance can be detected using special laboratory tests which test the bacteria for sensitivity to the drugs or detect resistance patterns. These tests can be molecular in type (such as Xpert MTB/RIF) or else culture-based.
What are the side effects of MDR-TB?
All patients received standardized therapy for MDR-TB. The major adverse effects included neurologic side effects (depression, convulsions, consciousness, psychosis, suicide; 7.5%), hepatitis (5%), rash (1.3%), renal toxicity (3.8%), and auditory toxicity (14.5%).
What is Xxdr TB?
Extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, and to any fluoroquinolone, as well as to any of the three second-line injectables (amikacin, capreomycin and kanamycin). While XXDR-TB is resistant to all first- and second-line drugs.
What causes MDR tuberculosis?
Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) is caused by TB bacteria that are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most potent TB drugs. These drugs are used to treat all persons with TB disease. TB experts should be consulted in the treatment of MDR TB.
What is MDR-TB symptoms?
4) What Are the Symptoms (Signs) of Persons with MDR TB?
- Bad Cough for longer than three weeks either dry, yellow or green mucus and in some cases bloody mucus.
- Weight Loss.
- Shortness of Breath.
- Night Sweats.
- Lack of appetite.
What does MDR/RR TB mean?
MDR/RR TB means patients with MDR TB as well as patients with TB resistant to rifampicin. For many years MDR TB has been the most basic form of drug resistant TB, and the type of TB for which many statistics were collected.
What is multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)?
MDR-TB is defined as resistance to isoniazid and rifampin, which are the 2 most effective first-line drugs for TB. In 2006, an international survey found that 20% of M tuberculosis isolates were MDR. [ 18]
What drugs are used to treat extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR)?
These drugs are used to treat all persons with TB disease. What is extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB)? Extensively drug resistant TB (XDR TB) is a rare type of MDR TB that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, plus any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (i.e., amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin).
What is XDR TB?
XDR TB is of special concern for persons with HIV infection or other conditions that can weaken the immune system. These persons are more likely to develop TB disease once they are infected, and also have a higher risk of death once they develop TB.