What is paroxysmal tonic upgaze?

What is paroxysmal tonic upgaze?

Paroxysmal tonic upgaze (PTU) is a syndrome of childhood manifesting as sudden ocular movements with sustained upward deviation of the eyes. We describe the outcome of 6 patients, after a follow-up of 10 years, with onset of the disease in childhood.

How rare is paroxysmal tonic upgaze?

PTU was first described in 1988. As of 2002, approximately fifty cases had been diagnosed. Because the condition is so rare, the majority of physicians have never seen it, and thus may not recognize it. Videotaping a child both in and out of the upgaze state can be vital for reaching a diagnosis.

Does paroxysmal tonic upgaze go away?

Paroxysmal tonic upgaze attacks have decreased in number or disappeared in 2 patients, but 1 patient exhibited mild abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging and had relatives with epilepsy.

What is upgaze?

upgaze (plural upgazes) (medicine) The act of looking upward.

What is PTU diagnosis?

Paroxismal tonic upgaze of childhood (PTU) is a distinctive neuro-ophthalmological syndrome of unknown aetiology and pathogenesis that is characterized by episodes of sustained upward deviation of the eyes, often with incomplete downward saccades on attempted downgaze.

Why does my toddler roll her eyes?

Tics – hard eye-blinking, eye rolling, throat clearing – may come and go, and may be accompanied by a verbal tic. Experts suspect tics come from an imbalance between the brain’s frontal lobe – which helps control such behaviors – and the middle part of the brain where motor functions are stored.

How does PTU cause a goiter?

Because the drug readily crosses placental membranes, propylthiouracil can cause fetal goiter and cretinism when administered to a pregnant woman (see Precautions, Pregnancy).

What causes abnormal eye movements?

Nystagmus is most commonly caused by a neurological problem that is present at birth or develops in early childhood. Acquired nystagmus, which occurs later in life, can be the symptom of another condition or disease, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis or trauma.

What is the pathophysiology of paroxysmal tonic upgaze?

Conclusions: In conclusion, paroxysmal tonic upgaze is an apparently benign phenomenon with unclear pathophysiology of various proposed mechanisms such as genetic predisposition, immaturity of the brain stem, neurotransmitter depletion, or immune dysregulation.

How often should Paroxysmal tonic upgaze (PTU) be examined?

Six children who developed paroxysmal tonic upgaze (PTU) at 2.6 to 7.4 years of age were examined at least once per year for a 10 year period of follow-up at the Departments of Paediatrics and Ophthalmology, University of Chieti, Italy. How to Cite: Millichap, J.G., 2002. Paroxysmal Tonic Upgaze: Age of Onset and Prognosis.

What is benign paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood (BPT)?

The first description of the syndrome as “benign paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood” was reported in 4 patients by Ouvrier RA and Billson F [ 2 ]. Some subsequent reports have included associated neurologic abnormalities, including ataxia (Deonna T et al. 1990), developmental delay, and abnormal brain MRI.