What is relativity in physics PDF?

What is relativity in physics PDF?

Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity forms one of the two pillars of modern physics. The special theory of relativity describes how space and time are perceived by observers in different inertial systems. The general theory of relativity unifies special relativity with Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravity.

What is the equation for special relativity?

Einstein went on to present his findings mathematically: energy (E) equals mass (m) times the speed of light (c) squared (2), or E=mc2. The secret the equation revealed—that mass and energy are different forms of the same thing—had eluded scientists for centuries.

What are the Galilean equations?

Galilean transformations, also called Newtonian transformations, set of equations in classical physics that relate the space and time coordinates of two systems moving at a constant velocity relative to each other.

Are Maxwell’s equations relativistic?

In modern form, Maxwell’s equations are manifestly relativistic. They can be written down as mathematical identities about the exterior derivatives of a four-dimensional vector field (the electromagnetic 4-potential) in conjunction with the spacetime metric.

What is the postulates of special theory of relativity?

1. Principle of Relativity – All the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames. 2. The speed of light in a vacuum is the same (3.0 x108 m/s) in all inertial reference frames regardless of the motion of the observer or source.

Which transformation equation justifies the theory of relativity?

Galilean and Einstein’s relativity If v is the relative velocity of R′ relative to R, the transformation is: x = x′ + vt, or x′ = x − vt. This relationship is linear for a constant v, that is when R and R′ are Galilean frames of reference.

What is Einstein’s most famous formula?

E = mc2
E = mc2 Explained. E = mc2. It’s the world’s most famous equation, but what does it really mean? “Energy equals mass times the speed of light squared.” On the most basic level, the equation says that energy and mass (matter) are interchangeable; they are different forms of the same thing.

What are the two basic postulates of special relativity?

SPECIAL RELATIVITY (Einstein 1905) Based on two postulates: The RELATIVITY PRINCIPLE: the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames. The CONSTANCY OF THE SPEED OF LIGHT: the speed of light, c=299,792 km/s, is the same for all inertial observers, independent of their velocity of motion relative to the source of light.

What are the consequences of the two principles of special relativity?

From the two principles of special relativity, some important consequences are derived. Relativity of Simultaneity To inside observer, light beams hit top and bottom simultaneously To outside observer, downward beam hits first (car catches up) – upward beam hits next (chases car).

What is special relativistic velocity?

Special-relativistic velocity addition (in the direction of motion) and NOT v1=v2+V as in classical mechanics. Note: v1never exceeds c. Note: velocities can be positive (towards east in this example) or negative (towards west)

What are the predictions of the theory of relativity?

SUMMARY OF THE PREDICTIONS OF THE THEORY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY Time dilation Length contractionalong the direction of motion Space and Time are relative Relativity of Simultaneity Velocities are relative, except for that of light, and add up in such a way that they never exceed the velocity of light.