Why does Dennard scaling no longer work?

Why does Dennard scaling no longer work?

Dennard scaling ended around 2004 because current and voltage couldn’t keep dropping while still maintaining the dependability of integrated circuits, and the leakage current and threshold voltage became the dominant factors in establishing a power baseline per transistor.

What is Dennard scaling law?

Dennard scaling, also known as MOSFET scaling, is a scaling law which states roughly that, as transistors get smaller, their power density stays constant, so that the power use stays in proportion with area; both voltage and current scale (downward) with length.

What is the main impact of the failure of Dennard scaling?

Around 2004, due to the failure of Dennard scaling, power and energy became the major constraint of digital systems. To offer higher performance without significant increase in power, computer industry moved toward multicore processors.

Has Moore’s law ended?

IEEE began a road-mapping initiative in 2016, “Rebooting Computing”, named the International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS). Most forecasters, including Gordon Moore, expect Moore’s law will end by around 2025.

Why is Moore’s law slowing down?

The extremely small feature size of advanced process technologies has required multiple exposures (multi-patterning) to accurately reproduce these features on a silicon wafer. This has added substantial complexity to the design process. All this complexity has essentially “slowed down” Moore’s law.

What is the effect of scaling on the circuit performance?

Technology scaling results in reduction of the lateral and vertical dimensions of transistors. The supply voltage (VDD) is scaled down to reduce power dissipation and to maintain device reliability (avoid oxide breakdown). The threshold voltage (Vt) is proportionally scaled down in order to maintain the performance.

How long will Moore’s Law last?

It was calculated that solely based upon uncertainty principle Moore’s law will come to a dead end by 2036. Robert Colwell, director of the Microsystems Technology Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, said he uses the year 2020 and 7nm as the last process technology node.

What are the limitations of scaling?

Disadvantages of scaling: Effect on SiO2 thickness – on scaling oxide thickness eventually a sage will reach when oxide will lose its dielectric property. Subthreshold current – For smaller device, in addition to VGS voltage, VDS voltage also has greater influence on the carrier flow in the channel.

What are the needs of scaling in IC technology?