What does warthin Starry stain?
Warthin – Starry stain is a stain based on silver nitrate used in histology. This type of stain is commonly called silver staining. Warthin – Starry stain is used for the visualization of spirochetes but also for the detection of Helicobacter pylori and microsperediates.
Is Bartonella henselae Gram stain?
Bartonella henselae the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), is a gram-negative, coccobacillus, facultative intracellular bacterium CSD usually presents as a clinical form of benign local lymphadenopathy (LAP) but sometimes it may progress to severe life threatening complications.
What does Bartonella henselae look like?
Bartonella henselae is a small gram-negative baccilus. It is an aerobic organism ~1µm in length and ~ 0.5 µm in diameter, that ocassionaly takes a slightly curved shape. It makes small jerking movements in the fresh state, but has no whips.
What disease does Bartonella henselae cause?
Cat scratch disease (CSD), also called cat scratch fever, is a bacterial infection caused by Bartonella henselae, which is generally spread to people through cat bites or scratches.
What is the best test for Bartonella?
The B. henselae Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) is designed to detect human IgM and IgG antibodies to Bartonella henselae antigens in human serum. For diagnostic purposes, Bartonella henselae IFA test results should be used in conjunction with other information available to the diagnosing physician.
Does Bartonella henselae need oxygen?
Another closely related species Bartonella quintana uses a similar mechanism for metabolism as well. Both bacteria use amino acid catabolism to generate energy. This was confirmed with oxygen consumption and the production of carbon dioxide (3).
What does Bartonella henselae cause?
Cat scratch disease (CSD), also called cat scratch fever, is a bacterial infection caused by Bartonella henselae, which is generally spread to people through cat bites or scratches. Most healthy people do not develop any symptoms, and those with a mild infection usually get better without any treatment.
Can Bartonella cause heart problems?
Rarely, Lyme disease and Bartonella species infections affect the muscle of the heart directly. This can cause angina (heart pain) and damage like a heart attack. When the muscle is damaged, it releases chemicals that can be tested for in the blood. Usually heart muscle damage is caused by CAD.
Is Bartonella henselae motile?
Bartonella henselae is an aerobic, oxidase-negative, and slow growing Gram negative rod, slightly curved. It does not have flagella to facilitate its movement; however, there has been evidence of twitching motility. It requires very exact and fastidious conditions to grow in vitro.
Which stain is used to detect Bartonella in hairy cell leukemia?
The endothelial lining may be absent focally, especially during the formation of a lesion. 47 Warthin-Starry stain can detect Bartonella organisms in bacillary peliosis. 48 Hairy cell leukemia has an “Indian file” lymphoid infiltrate with abundant cytoplasm, creating a characteristic perinuclear halo.
Is Bartonella henselae a pathogen of cat scratch disease?
Conclusions: Bartonella henselae is the causative pathogen of cat scratch disease. WS stain, BhmAB immunostain and transmission electron microscopy are helpful in confirming the histologic diagnosis. Immunostaining using BhmAB can be a better alternative than WS stain in demonstrating the organisms.
How do you test for Bartonella henselae?
Bartonella henselae is the causative pathogen of cat scratch disease. WS stain, BhmAB immunostain and transmission electron microscopy are helpful in confirming the histologic diagnosis. Immunostaining using BhmAB can be a better alternative than WS stain in demonstrating the organisms.
What are some examples of stains obtained with the Warthin-Starry stain?
Here are some examples of stains obtained with the Warthin – Starry stain: 1 Spirochetes: Black 2 Helicobacter pylori: Black 3 Klebsiella: Brown – Black 4 Cores: Brown 5 Background: Golden yellow More