What is DRI in steel production?
Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) is the second most viable source of virgin iron used in steelmaking after pig iron or hot metal produced in blast furnaces. DRI is produced by direct reduction of iron ore using carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
What are advantages of DRI?
USING DRI. The advantages of DRI include: predictable chemistry, low tramp material content, carbon and foamy slag formation, lower capital and operating costs, relatively uninterrupted continuous iron making, EAF feed adjustment via blending with lower quality feed material (usually scrap), and less back charging.
What is DRI in shipping?
Description / Application / Shipment – Storage / Risk factors. Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal.
Which one is a gas-based DRI process?
The two most dominant gas-based processes are MIDREX and HYL III, which combined to produce approximately 91% of the world’s DRI production.
What is the purpose of the direct reduction iron system?
Direct reduction of iron is the removal of oxygen from iron ore or other iron bearing materials in the solid state, i.e. without melting, as in the blast furnace. The reducing agents are carbon monoxide and hydrogen, coming from reformed natural gas, syngas or coal.
What is DRI hydrogen?
Today, in a Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) furnace fed with natural gas (CH4), approximately 50% of the reaction comes from hydrogen (H2), and the remainder from carbon monoxide. Technologies can be developed to increase the proportion of hydrogen fed into the shaft furnace up to 100%.
Why is DRI called sponge iron?
WHY IS IT CALLED SPONGE IRON? Iron oxide ores taken out from the Earth are allowed to absorb carbon by a reduction process. In this natural reduction, as the iron ore is warmed up with carbon, it results in a surface with hole marks, hence the name “Sponge Iron”.
What is DRI technology?
The process of reducing gas to convert iron ore into metallic iron is known as direct reduction. Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) is a manufactured metallic material produced by the reduction (removal of oxygen) of iron oxide at temperatures below the melting point of iron (1536° C or 2797° F).
Why is DRI flammable?
Hot iron when in contact with water can cause a chemical reaction resulting in the production of hydrogen, which is highly explosive in the correct quantities. The generation of hydrogen is the most dangerous property of DRI and has led to several fatal explosions.
Is DRI flammable?
That the DRI is manufactured or treated with an oxidation inhibiting process to the satisfaction of the Competent Authority. If the atmosphere is inerted, the inerting agent must be nitrogen. Carbon dioxide should not be used, primarily because it can produce carbon monoxide, which is both toxic and flammable.
What is DRI production process?
Major DRI production processes are either natural gas based or coal based. Feed material for the DR process is either sized iron ore of size ranging from 10 mm to 30 mm or iron ore pellets of size ranging from 8 mm to 20 mm produced in an iron ore pellet plant. The gas based process uses a shaft furnace for the reduction reaction.
What is direct reduced iron (DRI) process?
In the direct-reduced iron (DRI) process, the iron ores are reduced directly to sponge iron by gaseous reducing agents! In the electric steel process, the sponge iron obtained from the direct reduced iron process is used for crude steel making.
What is the reductant in DRI process?
The reductant can be a gas or a solid. Major DRI production processes are either natural gas based or coal based. Feed material for the DR process is either sized iron ore of size ranging from 10 mm to 30 mm or iron ore pellets of size ranging from 8 mm to 20 mm produced in an iron ore pellet plant.
What are the different types of DRI processes?
gas-based shaft furnace processes (Midrex® and Energiron being the main ones) – accounting for 75.8% of 2019 DRI production (total 108.1 million tonnes); gas-based fluidized bed processes (the Finmet / Finored process being the only commercial scale one in operation) – accounting for 0.2% of 2019 DRI production